NSTARR Products & Resources

Research Products


These state-level reports provide a snapshot of the number and location of recovery residences as it relates to population density, alcohol- and drug-involved mortality, and COVID vulnerability in the 50 states and Washington, D.C. The reports summarize state-level data compiled in the National Study of Treatment and Addiction Recovery Residences (NSTARR) project, the largest and most diverse study of recovery housing to date. Residences for which locating information was available were geocoded and linked with U.S. Census and other data to contextualize characteristics of where recovery residences are located.  These reports are based on data collected between January 2020 and January 2021, representing 10,358 distinct recovery residences belonging to 3,628 different recovery housing providers. We are continuing to update the information in our database. Please contact us to ensure that your residences are represented!

For a detailed description of methods and national findings, please see Mericle et al., 2022.

NSTARR (2022). National Study of Treatment & Addiction Recovery Residences Report: [STATE]. Alcohol Research Group, Public Health Institute: Emeryville, CA. https://nstarr.arg.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/10/[STATE]_Final.pdf (date accessed: [Date] [Month] 20[YY])

NSTARR (2022). National Study of Treatment & Addiction Recovery Residences Report: California. Alcohol Research Group, Public Health Institute: Emeryville, CA. https://nstarr.arg.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/10/California_Final.pdf (date accessed: 10 April 2023)


Mericle, A. A., Howell, J., Borkman, T., Subbaraman, M. S., Sanders, B. F., & Polcin, D. L. (2023) Social model recovery and recovery housing, Addiction Research & Theory, Available at: doi.org/10.1080/16066359.2023.2179996

Howell, J., Cooperman, L., Patterson, D., & Mericle, A. (In press). Getting Recovery Housing on the Substance Use Treatment Services Map: The NSTARR Study. Counselor.

Mericle, A. A., Patterson, D., Howell, J., Subbaraman, M. S., Faxio, A., Karriker-Jaffe, K. J. (2022). Identifying the availability of recovery housing in the US: The NSTARR Project. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 230, 109188. Available at: doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2021.109188

Mericle, A. A., Slaymaker, V., Gliske, K., Ngo, Q., Subbaraman, M.S., Kaskutas, L (2022). The role of recovery housing during outpatient substance use treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 133, 108638. Available at: doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2021.108638

Miles, J., Reif, S., Mericle, A. Ritter, G. (2021). Association of facility characteristics and substance use disorder outcomes at discharge from residential treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 108664. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34840041/

Mericle, A. A., Sheridan, D., Howell, J., Braucht, G. S., Karriker-Jaffe, K., & Polcin, D. L. (2020). Sheltering in place and social distancing when the services provided are housing and social support: The COVID-19 health crisis and recovery housing. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 119, 108094. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7395628/

Howell, J., Kaskutas, L., Patterson, D., Cooperman, L., Subbaraman, M., Karriker-Jaffe, K., & Mericle, A. (2020). National Study to Identify Gaps in Recovery Housing. Addiction Professional. Available at: https://www.psychcongress.com/article/national-study-identify-gaps-recovery-housing

Mericle, A. A., Karriker-Jaffe, K., Patterson, D., Mahoney, E., Cooperman, L., & Polcin, D. L. (2020). Recovery in context: Sober living houses and the ecology of recovery. Journal of community psychology, 48(8), 2589–2607. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32939779/

Miles, J., Howell, J., Sheridan, D., Braucht, G., & Mericle, A. (2020). Supporting individuals using medications for opioid use disorder in recovery residences: challenges and opportunities for addressing the opioid epidemic. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, 46(3), 266–272. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32091262/


Mericle, A. A. (2022). State-level analyses of recovery housing availability: Leveraging & building on findings from the NSTARR Projects. Presentation at the annual NARR Best Practices Summit, Richmond, VA.

Mericle, A. A. (2022). Recovery housing research: Why research matters & why participate. Presentation at the annual Oxford House World Convention, Seattle, WA.

Mericle, A. A. (2022). An Overview of the NSTARR Projects: Findings Regarding Recovery Housing in New York. Presentation at the New York State Alliance of Recovery Residences (NYSARR) and Opioid Respond Network (ORN) Annual Recovery Housing Conference.

Mericle, A. A., Karriker-Jaffe, K. J., Patterson, D., Subbaraman, M. S., Taxman, F. (2022). Factors Associated with Recovery Housing Availability for Justice-Involved Individuals in the Community. Poster presentation at the annual meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence, Minneapolis, MN.

Mericle, A. A. (2022). The State of Recovery Housing Research. Virtual presentation to attendees of the JEAP Recovery Housing Forum.

Mericle, A. A., Howell, J., Borkman, T. (2021). National Study of Treatment and Addiction Recovery Residences (NSTARR) Projects: Recovery Housing Capacity & Characteristics. Virtual presentation at the National Alliance for Recovery Residences Best Practices Summit.

Mericle, A. A. & Karriker-Jaffe, K. J (2021). Recovery Housing: Availability for Justice-involved Individuals in the Community. Presentation to the JCOIN Steering Committee.

Karriker-Jaffe, K. J., Patterson, D., Subbaraman, M. S., Howell, J., Sheridan, D., Borkman, T., Burton, J., & Mericle, A. A. (2021). Recovery Housing: A Resource to Address COVID Vulnerability.  ASHR 2021 virtual poster presentation. Available at: https://osf.io/nxfp4/

Mericle, A. A (2021). Critically Examining the Evidence base for Recovery Housing. Webinar presented to the Michigan Alliance for Recovery Residences. Available at:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KDBzN76tT2s

Resources for Recovery Housing Operators


National Alliance for Recovery Residences (narronline.org) Known as the national voice of recovery housing, NARR was created in 2011 after a number of high-profile cases where recovery residence providers committed fraudulent acts for personal gain. NARR established a certification program and national standards for recovery residences in the United States, focusing on the components of quality, access, and choice, and developed a written code of ethics for recovery housing. Some, but not all, states have recovery residence organizations affiliated with NARR. These state-level organizations may offer formal certifications that adhere to NARR’s standards (e.g., Massachusetts Alliance for Sober Housing and Southern California’s Sober Living Network).

Oxford House are a specific type of recovery residence with a manualized set of rules and expectations. New houses must be chartered by the umbrella organization, Oxford House, Inc. A searchable database of residences across the country that lists their vacancies can be found here.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s (SAMHSA’s) has a searchable treatment locator service, a confidential and anonymous source of information for persons seeking treatment facilities in the United States or U.S. Territories for substance use/addiction. https://www.findtreatment.gov/


The Sober Living Insurance Program is an exclusive insurance program designed for recovery residences. As a division of NSM Insurance Group, the Program offers a comprehensive suite of coverages to meet the unique needs of sober living homes and the full spectrum of recovery residences. We are committed to serving recovery residence providers across America with complete insurance coverage and risk management solutions, and are proud of our association with NARR and its affiliate organizations.

The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) of 2008 requires health insurers and group health plans to provide the same level of benefits for mental and/or substance use treatment and services that they do for medical and surgical care. That means your insurance company can’t tell you “we don’t do substance abuse treatment” or “mental health isn’t covered.” If they do this, they’re breaking the law. If you’ve been denied coverage for treatment, this Mental Health and Addiction Insurance Help tool can help you find the right resources to solve issues with your insurance.  https://www.hhs.gov/programs/health-insurance/mental-health-substance-use-insurance-help/index.html 


The Alcohol Research Group, established in 1959, conducts and disseminates research on the epidemiology of alcohol and other drug consumption and problems, alcohol health services research, and alcohol policies while also training future generations of researchers.

The Recovery Research Institute is a leading nonprofit research institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, an affiliate of Harvard Medical School, dedicated to the advancement of addiction treatment and recovery.

The Consortium on Addiction Recovery Science (CoARS) is funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse and coordinated by Dr. Aaron Hogue (PI). It is an example of NIDA’s investment in increasing our understanding of recovery support services.

Advancing the Science on Recovery Community Centers is a NIDA-funded project building research infrastructure that enhances the study of recovery community centers with a focus on their utility for persons who were or who are being maintained on medications for the treatment of opioid use disorder.

The Justice and Emerging Adult Populations (JEAP) Initiative is a NIDA-funded initiative to advance research on the efficacy/effectiveness of peer recovery supports and recovery residences for emerging adults and justice-involved adults with substance use disorder, including opioid use disorder.

The Family Involvement in Recovery Support and Treatment (FIRST) Research Network is a NIDA-funded multidisciplinary collaborative dedicated to promoting family integration in treatment and recovery services for youth with opioid use disorder (OUD) and other substance use disorders (SUDs).

The Studies To Advance Recovery Support (STARS) Network, is a thematic, stakeholder-focused research network that aims to generate trainings, tools, and platforms targeted to the implementation and study of peer recovery support services for individuals treated with medications for opioid use disorder. The STARS Network provides a critical foundation for high-priority research on peer recovery support services to inform the expansion of peer recovery support services and advance recovery among individuals with opioid use disorder.